Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum in Albino Rats

Ojo, O.A and Oloyede, O.I and Olarewaju, O.I and Ojo, A.B and Ajiboye, B.O and Onikanni, S.A (2013) Toxicity Studies of the Crude Aqueous Leaves Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum in Albino Rats. IOSR Journal Of Environmental Science, Toxicology And Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT), 6 (4). pp. 34-29. ISSN 2319-2402

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Objective: Aqueous leaves extracts of Ocimum gratissimum has been reported to possess hypoglycaemic effects. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigated the LD50 of the crude aqueous leaves extracts of Ocimum gratissimum and the effect of sub-chronic doses of the extract on liver and kidney function parameters of albino rats. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical and acute evaluation of the possible toxicity risk of Ocimum gratissimum aqueous leaves extracts were investigated in this study. Sixteen albino rats were randomly assigned to four experimental groups of four marked as control group, groups A, B, and C respectively. Groups A, B and C were treated with oral administration of aqueous extract of Ocimum gratissimum at 100mg, 200mg and 400mg/kg body weight daily respectively for two weeks. Control group received no treatment for subchronic toxicity. Results: Phytochemical constituents were detected in the leaves extracts. The median lethal dose (LD50) of the aqueous leaves extracts was calculated to be 4.24 µg/kg body weight. It result showed that there was significant (p<0.05) decreased in the total bilirubin and conjugated bilirubin levels of rats administered with O. gratissimum when compared with those of the control. Significant reduction in the serum albumin was also observed while the serum total protein was insignificant. Results also showed that treatment of rats with the respective doses of the extract did not significantly alter the serum and liver levels of Alanine Transaminase and Aspartate Transaminase in all test groups. There was a significant increase in the activities (P<0.05) of AST and ALT in the kidney and serum which might be caused by activation of enzymes synthesis in renal cells. Conclusion: These investigations thus indicate the toxic effects of the aqueous leaves extracts of Ocimum gratissimum at 4.5µg/kg and these could be attributed to the combined toxicity of the phytochemical constituents such as tannin, saponins, glycosides and alkaloids

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Aqueous Ocimum gratissimum extract, Phytochemical, LD50, sub-chronic toxicity, albino rats, toxicological effect.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QK Botany
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
R Medicine > RS Pharmacy and materia medica
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Medicine
Depositing User: Mr Tayo Okunlola
Date Deposited: 20 Jul 2016 11:05
Last Modified: 20 Jul 2016 11:05

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